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The Indian Bush Lark (Mirafra erythroptera): A Melodic Resident of South Asia’s Drylands.

Mackenzie Gary

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The Indian bush lark (Mirafra erythroptera), a distinctive species within the Alaudidae family, thrives in the diverse landscapes of South Asia.

This bird, often recognized by its alternate names such as the red-winged lark or red-winged bush lark, carves a unique identity in the avian world, distinct from its cousin, the red-winged lark (M. hypermetra).



While it shares several names like the Indian lark, Indian red-winged lark, red-winged singing bush lark, and rusty-winged lark, its unique characteristics set it apart, especially in comparison with Jerdon’s bush lark.


The Indian bush lark is notable for its shorter bill and legs, paired with a longer tail, distinguishing it clearly from Jerdon’s bush lark.

Its plumage is a subtle palette of pale shades, adorned with a distinctive cheek patch that is neatly framed by a white supercilium and post-auricular border.

The bird’s crown and upper parts are marked by heavy streaking, while the pale underparts are spotted on the breast.

The wings of the Indian bush lark are particularly striking, with most wing coverts, tertials, and central tail feathers displaying pale centers, and the primary coverts presenting a solid brown color.

The rufous wing bars, a diagnostic feature, demand careful observation to avoid confusion with Jerdon’s bush lark, especially in areas where their habitats overlap.


The Indian bush lark, a versatile and adaptable feeder, primarily thrives on a diet that includes a variety of seeds and tiny insects.

These components form the crux of its nutritional intake, ensuring a balanced diet essential for its survival and health.

Seeds, sourced from a diverse array of grasses and plants native to its South Asian habitat, constitute a significant portion of the Indian bush lark’s diet.

These seeds, rich in nutrients, provide the energy and sustenance required for its daily activities, including singing, foraging, and mating.

The lark’s ability to forage for seeds in various environments showcases its adaptability and resourcefulness.

In addition to seeds, tiny insects play a pivotal role in the Indian bush lark’s diet. These insects, which include various species of ants, beetles, and other small arthropods, offer crucial proteins and other nutrients.

The consumption of insects not only supplements the lark’s diet with necessary proteins but also aids in its overall health, contributing to feather strength, reproductive success, and immune system support.

The Indian bush lark’s foraging behavior is a testament to its adaptability and survival skills. It skillfully navigates through its environment, using its keen senses to locate and capture these tiny insects, often hidden among foliage or within the soil.

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This ability to switch between seeds and insects allows the Indian bush lark to maintain a balanced diet throughout the year, adapting to seasonal changes in food availability.

the combination of seeds and tiny insects in the diet of the Indian bush lark reflects its ability to thrive in diverse environmental conditions, making the most of the resources available in its natural habitat.


The Indian bush lark (Mirafra erythroptera), a species well-suited to arid environments, predominantly inhabits the dry and semi-arid regions of South Asia.

This bird is most commonly encountered in areas characterized by their minimal rainfall and sparse vegetation, environments in which it has adapted to thrive.

The bird’s range extends across several key geographical areas, including Pakistan and significant parts of India. In India, the Indian bush lark is particularly prevalent in the north-western, central, and south-central regions.

These areas, known for their dry climate and open landscapes, provide the ideal habitat for this species.

In these arid zones, the Indian bush lark benefits from the open, unobstructed terrain, which is conducive to its foraging habits and breeding behavior.

The landscape typically comprises sparse grasslands, scrublands, and lightly wooded areas, offering ample opportunities for nesting and feeding.

The openness of this habitat allows the Indian bush lark to easily spot potential predators, a crucial factor for its survival in such exposed environments.

The adaptability of the Indian bush lark is evident in its ability to endure the harsh conditions characteristic of arid regions.

The bird’s physiological and behavioral adaptations enable it to minimize water loss and withstand the high temperatures often experienced in these areas.

Behavior and Vocalization.

The Indian bush lark is renowned for its vibrant and melodious song, a hallmark of this species that resonates through its arid habitats.

This song, primarily a male attribute, is not just a display of acoustic beauty but serves multiple critical functions in the lark’s life cycle.

Males often choose elevated perches like shrubs or trees to broadcast their song, which is a complex and captivating series of notes.

These songs play a pivotal role in territorial defense, mate attraction, and communicating with other members of their species, making them integral to the bird’s social and reproductive behavior.

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On the ground, the Indian bush lark exhibits a lifestyle that is predominantly terrestrial. It dedicates a considerable amount of its time to foraging, scouring the ground for insects and seeds which form the crux of its diet.

The bird’s foraging technique is a testament to its adaptability, often involving short, quick flights to snag prey or evade potential dangers. This ground-dwelling nature of the Indian bush lark highlights its adaptation to the arid and open landscapes it inhabits.

During the breeding season, the behavior of the Indian bush lark takes on an even more dynamic aspect.

Males partake in elaborate and visually striking aerial displays, a performance that intertwines physical prowess with their vocal abilities.

These displays see the male larks soaring high into the sky, singing intensely, an act designed to showcase their vigor and attractiveness to potential mates.

This combination of aerial acrobatics and vocal exhibition not only underscores the bird’s physical capabilities but also plays a crucial role in the mating process, influencing mate selection and reproductive success.

Predators and Threats:

The Indian bush lark, while currently listed under the “Least Concern” category by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), faces several challenges that could impact its future stability and survival.

One of the most pressing threats to the Indian bush lark is habitat loss, primarily driven by human activities such as agricultural expansion, urbanization, and industrial development.

These activities lead to the destruction and fragmentation of the grassland habitats that are crucial for the bird’s survival.

The loss of these habitats not only diminishes the available space for foraging and breeding but also disrupts the ecological balance of the areas where these birds live.

Another significant threat comes from the widespread use of pesticides in agriculture.

Pesticides, while aimed at controlling crop pests, can have unintended consequences on the wider ecosystem.

For the Indian bush lark, the use of these chemicals poses an indirect threat by reducing the population of insects, which are an essential part of its diet.

This reduction in prey availability can lead to nutritional deficiencies and a decrease in reproductive success.

To mitigate these threats, concerted conservation efforts are needed. Strategies should include preserving and restoring suitable grassland habitats, which are vital for the Indian bush lark’s feeding and breeding activities.

Additionally, promoting sustainable agricultural practices that minimize the impact on local wildlife can play a significant role in conserving this species.

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Raising awareness among local communities about the importance of the Indian bush lark is also crucial.

Educating people about the ecological role of this bird and the threats it faces can foster a more harmonious coexistence and encourage community-led conservation initiatives.

Quick Facts: Indian Bush Lark (Mirafra erythroptera).

  1. Conservation Status: The Indian bush lark is classified as a species of “Least Concern” by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), indicating a stable population.
  2. Geographic Distribution: This species is predominantly found in South Asia, with a significant presence in Pakistan, and north-western, central, and south-central India.
  3. Distinctive Identification Markers: The Indian bush lark is recognized by its short buff-edged tail, a stout bill, and a distinct spotted upper breast that contrasts with its white throat. Its most striking feature is the bright rufous on its wing edgings.
  4. Habitat Preference: It prefers dry grasslands with scrub and dry rocky scrublands, adapting well to arid environments.
  5. Physical Description: Notable for its pale plumage, the Indian bush lark has a cheek patch completely bounded by a white supercilium and post-auricular border. The crown and upper parts of the bird are heavily streaked.
  6. Comparison with Jerdon’s Bush Lark: The Indian bush lark can be differentiated from Jerdon’s Bush Lark by its longer tail, shorter bill and legs, and different wing coloration.
  7. Behavioral Traits: Known for its “dancing mood,” the Indian bush lark exhibits unique behaviors, especially during the breeding season.
  8. Common Habitats in India: It is a common but often overlooked resident of India’s dry grasslands, particularly in regions like Rajasthan.
  9. Birding Interest: Despite its widespread presence, the Indian bush lark is not typically a focus of bird news services in Britain or Ireland, being classified as ungraded for rarity in these regions.
  10. Physical Variations: Wing coverts, tertials, and central tail feathers of the Indian bush lark predominantly have pale centers, while the primary coverts appear all brown.

Alström, P. (2020). Indian Bushlark (Mirafra erythroptera), version 1.0. In Birds of the World (J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, J. Sargatal, D. A. Christie, and E. de Juana, Editors). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA.